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When was the first pencil factory in China born? (centuries and years)

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in 1932, China established the first Dahua pencil factory in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Since then, Beiping China pencil company and Shanghai Huawen pencil factory have been built successively, both of which are semi-finished product processing plants
in 1934, a Chinese standard domestic pencil factory was established in Shanghai. It began to make lead cores and began to study the manufacture of pencils with domestic raw materials
after the founding of the people’s Republic of China, large-scale pencil factories with an annual output of 150-250 million pieces have been built in more than 10 cities such as Harbin, Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan, Dalian, Fuzhou, Shenyang and Bengbu. Lead core manufacturing and painting, printing and decoration technology have also been continuously improved, and all plastic pencils, resin fine lead cores and fine core movable pencils have been developed. We have developed new equipment such as glue plate bundle clamp dryer, automatic painting machine, electric tunnel core burning furnace, lap board machine and various packaging machines.

wooden graphite pencil originated in England in the 16th century. In the 17th century, Germany built the world’s first pencil manufacturing factory. In the 18th century, the French succeeded in studying and reforming the lead manufacturing process. In the 19th century, Russia, Japan, the United States and other countries successively established pencil manufacturing factories. At the end of the 19th century, pencils from Germany, Japan and the United States were successively imported into China, occupying China’s pencil Market
China’s pencil manufacturing factory was born in the 1930s. In 1932, the pencil factory operated by British businessmen was transformed into Dahua pencil factory in Kowloon, Hong Kong, with the investment of Chinese people. It is the first pencil factory in China. In 1933, Beijing China pencil company and Shanghai Huawen pencil factory appeared one after another. These two factories are not all-round manufacturers. And because of the backward production technology, they failed to develop on their own
in old China, there were many difficulties for domestic pencils to compete with foreign pencils and squeeze into the market. Wu tangmei did not flinch or be discouraged. In line with the Anti Japanese patriotic sentiment of the Chinese people at that time, the country widely set off a trend of promoting domestic products, and named the factory “China standard national Pencil Factory Co., Ltd. (the company was reorganized and renamed” China standard pencil factory Co., Ltd. “in 1942, referred to as” China lead company “). It claims that the products of the factory are made by “Chinese technicians, Chinese raw materials and Chinese capital”. At the same time, the eight words “Chinese people use Chinese pencils” are printed on the pencils to stimulate the patriotic enthusiasm of our compatriots and encourage Chinese people to use domestic pencils. With the support of patriotism and enthusiasm of Chinese people, the products of China standard domestic pencil factory have gradually squeezed into the pencil market dominated by foreign pencils and won a place. After many efforts, the pencil was put into the stationery counter of the three famous department stores of Yong’an, Xianshi and Daxin on the most prosperous Nanjing Road in Shanghai, which improved the value and popularity of the products, established the reputation of the products, and the sales market increased day by day. It not only gained a firm foothold in the Shanghai market, but also gradually expanded the sales area. As far as Yunnan, Shaanxi, Xinjiang and other remote regions, as well as Nanyang (Southeast Asia) Thailand and other regions, there are also product footprints

in 1937, the situation at home and abroad rose. The “July 7” incident, the Japanese imperialists launched a large-scale aggression against China, and the war soon spread to Shanghai. The “August 13” Songhu war of resistance against Japanese aggression broke out. The pencil factory was located in the national border, fell under gunfire and was forced to stop work. In order not to let the enterprise established with painstaking efforts fall into the enemy, with the approval and support of Wu gengmei’s on-the-job workers, and in response to the call of the Ministry of economy of the national government for the relocation of the factory, she decided to demolish all the factories in the rear of the mainland. Under the threat of enemy fire, the factory workers went all out and moved to Wuhan for the first time. In 1938, he moved to Yichang. In 1939, when it moved to Chongqing for three times, the Sichuan river was turbulent, the civilian ships carrying machines were in danger, and two tenths of the equipment sank at the bottom of the river. After three migrations, hardships and dangers, the pencil factory, which is on the verge of extinction, finally has a foothold in production in Chongqing and has become the only pencil factory in the rear. During his stay in Chongqing, the factory was bombed twice by Japanese aircraft, destroying workshops and warehouses and causing heavy losses. Under the threat of the enemy, the staff of the whole factory did not humble and collapse, worked hard to repair, insisted on production, and assumed the responsibility of the only pencil factory in the rear. During the eight years of the Anti Japanese War, 51.414 million pencils made entirely of domestic goods were manufactured and sold all over the rear area, alleviating the urgent need for cultural and writing supplies in the rear area. At the same time, the affiliated China standard sawmill manufactured a large number of military wooden boxes urgently needed by the front line of the Anti Japanese War, and the affiliated Zhonghe chemical plant produced a large number of chemical products required by the military industry, which made efforts to directly support the cause of the Anti Japanese war

after the victory of the Anti Japanese war in 1945, Wu tangmei returned to Shanghai to make preparations for factory restoration. In the first half of 1946, it was completed and started production. It is one of the first batch of enterprises to return to Shanghai from Chongqing

in the early stage of factory resumption, the factory was faced with the serious threat of massive dumping of pencils from the United States and fierce competition from two powerful competitors, the Great Wall pencil factory and the Shanghai pencil factory, which made the production and operation of the factory into a very difficult situation. In 1948, with social unrest, inflation and soaring prices, factories sold finished products and couldn’t make up for raw materials in an instant. They had to drink doves to quench their thirst, make high interest loans and maintain production, forming a vicious circle. Debts became heavier and heavier, and it was difficult to make ends meet. By 1949, the factory had been in a state of semi shutdown. Under the heavy suffering, the factory workers endured pain and suffering, fought tenaciously, and finally preserved the factory completely, laying the cornerstone for the development of pencil industry after the founding of new China

soon after the liberation of Shanghai in May 1949, China lead Corporation, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the people’s government, made every effort to develop the pencil industry in New China. In September 1949, actively responding to the call of the people’s government, it invested in a set of pencil manufacturing equipment with a monthly production capacity of 20000 Luo and established a “public-private Harbin China standard pencil company” with the “public-private Harbin enterprise company” of Heilongjiang Province. This was the first joint venture between a private enterprise and a foreign public-private joint venture in Shanghai, which caused a sensation in Shanghai at that time. Shanghai business daily once reported on it. Harbin China standard pencil company is still one of the larger enterprises in the national pencil industry

in July 1950, China lead Corporation was officially approved by the financial and Economic Committee of the State Council of government affairs as the first public-private joint venture in Shanghai light industry system. From then on, the enterprise entered a new period of development and began a new process

after the joint venture, the socialist consciousness of the employees has been significantly improved. We can see that the country has started large-scale economic construction, and the demand for drawing pencils for engineering design and drawing has greatly increased. As for China, there has never been a domestic drawing pencil with complete specifications and excellent quality, so the expensive American “Venus” brand drawing pencils and other imported products are widely used. The workers are determined to change this situation and trial produce high-quality drawing pencils. After hundreds of tests — Improvement — retest — improvement, it was finally manufactured into a high-quality “Zhonghua” brand 101 drawing pencil with complete specifications in March 1954. After listing, it is very popular with consumers, and the drawing pencils of the United States, Germany, Japan and other countries have disappeared in China’s market. “Zhonghua” brand 101 drawing pencil is the only product in China that can compete with foreign drawing pencils and can not be matched by domestic products. It has epoch-making significance in the history of China’s pencil industry

in October 1954, Shanghai pencil industry was merged, and China lead company was renamed “No. 1 Factory of China pencil company under public-private partnership”. In June 1955, it was renamed “No. 1 pencil factory of China in public-private partnership” (referred to as China lead No. 1 factory for short). In January 1956, the state merged the “public-private joint venture China pencil No. 3 factory” (the Great Wall pencil factory originally built in 1937) into China lead No. 1 factory. Later, it was incorporated into “Wuhua hardware stationery factory” and 8 small owner units. Through industry restructuring, the scale of enterprises has been expanded, and the production economy has developed unprecedentedly. The output value and output have doubled. In 1957, the total industrial output value (calculated at constant prices in 1957) was 4.527 million yuan, an increase of 2.2 times in 1950; The output of pencils was 121.8898 million, an increase of 2.18 times. The scale of the enterprise expanded exponentially, with fixed assets (original value) of 828000 yuan in 1957, an increase of 3.55 times over 1950; The number of employees was 691, an increase of 306 over 1950. Loss of the joint venture before the joint venture. In March 1950, the total liabilities of the enterprise reached 4.5 billion yuan, and the capital turnover was extremely difficult. After the joint venture, gradually pay off the debts and turn losses into profits. In 1957, the total profit and tax reached 1.639 million yuan and the profit was 1.407 million yuan

from 1958 to 1965, various political and mass movements were carried out continuously, which interfered with the enterprise management and production order to a certain extent. The product quality is good and the economic benefit is up and down, which has affected the development momentum of the enterprise, but the overall production economy is still growing. The main economic indicators in 1965 were compared with those in 1957: the total industrial output value (calculated at constant prices in 1957) was 13.162 million yuan, an increase of 1.9 times; The output of pencils was 322775300, an increase of 1.64 times; The total profit and tax was 5.803 million yuan, an increase of 2.5 times; Fixed assets (original value) were 1.957 million yuan, an increase of 1.36 times

during this period, two remarkable achievements have been made: first, since the mid-1950s, we have continued to carry out mass technological innovation and technological revolution, introduced technology and equipment from abroad, and carried out comprehensive reform and transformation of old equipment and processes. In 1956, the rotary drum core drying machine was reformed to replace the backward manual core drying process; In the 1960s, the innovation was successful, and hundreds of technological innovation projects such as grinding head and planer rod combine machine were put into operation one after another. In addition, in 1956, the three-color printing machine was introduced from Japan as a sample, digested and copied, and innovated into a four-color printing machine; In 1958, 200 ton hydraulic core machine and other advanced equipment were introduced from West Germany, which changed the backward appearance of the original technology and equipment, and exported “Great Wall” brand pencils and fixed brand pencils in large quantities. In 1959, he applied for the registration of the “elephant” brand trademark for export products, mass produced and exported “elephant” brand pencils, and expanded the export quantity. By 1965, the delivery volume of export products reached 113 million, accounting for more than one third of the total output of pencils, which played a pillar role in transforming China from a pencil importer to a pencil exporter

the “Cultural Revolution” from 1966 to 1976 brought disaster to China lead No. 1 plant. The party organization was paralyzed for a time. A series of so-called “fighting, approval and reform” actions not only caused many people to be treated unfairly, but also confused people’s thoughts and frustrated the enthusiasm of the majority of employees

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