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Production of margarine

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raw oil
1. Animal oil: tallow, pig fat
2. Animal hydrogenated oil: hydrogenated oil such as fish oil and tallow
3. Vegetable oil: soybean oil, rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, rice bran oil, corn oil, etc
4. Vegetable hydrogenated oil: the oil obtained by hydrogenating the above vegetable oil
5. Animal and vegetable transesterification oil
the above oils must be well refined to achieve high quality in order to ensure the manufacturing quality and good preservation quality of margarine. Selection of raw oil
in general margarine, the oil phase accounts for about 80%, which is the most expensive in the cost, so the selection of raw oil is very important. Reasonable selection of raw oil is the primary problem to reduce the cost and maintain the product quality at the same time. General feed oil is composed of a certain amount of solid grease and a certain amount of liquid oil. The proportion and variety of solid grease and liquid oil vary according to product requirements and national resources. Generally, it can be selected according to the following three aspects:
1. Determine the value and melting point of SFC according to the purpose and temperature of the product to make it meet the requirements of product mouth fusibility and consistency, and then determine the proportion of solid-liquid grease according to the value and melting point of SFC. The SFC of household margarine is between 10-20 at the service temperature; The margarine used in the food industry is between 15-25, and the flake pastry oil can even reach about 40
2. Pay attention to the crystallinity of raw oil. Margarine bead grease grains are formed from about 20% fat, and the grain structure absorbs about 80% liquid oil and about 16% water. The high melting point component in the raw oil determines the crystallization trend of margarine. Generally, several oils are selected to form crystals
3. Consider nutrition. Household margarine requires the ratio of linoleic acid to saturated acid to be at least 1.0, and does not want to have isomeric acids. Therefore, liquid oils rich in linoleic acid are often used, such as cotton seed oil, rice bran oil, corn germ oil, sunflower seed oil, etc. soybean oil is not stable and needs to be used in limited quantities
there are many other factors in the selection and coordination of grease. How to choose the best scheme must be based on local and time conditions, and can not be generalized
excipients
margarine is the product of crystallization after emulsification of oil and water. The water used must be strictly disinfected to remove E. coli and make it meet the hygienic requirements for eating. In addition, various harmful metal elements and harmful organic compounds must be removed. In order to improve the flavor, appearance, organization, physical properties, nutritional value and storage of products, various additives should be used:
1. Milk composition: milk and skimmed milk are generally used. Fresh milk must be carefully sterilized and can only be used after confirming that it is not polluted by microorganisms. Milk powder and skimmed milk powder can also be used after adding water, but the milk taste is slightly inferior. Milk and milk powder can be used directly. If diacetyl is produced by lactic acid bacteria fermentation, it can strengthen the flavor of margarine and prevent vitamin A and oil from being oxidized. Because fermented milk and fresh milk need to be stored in cold storage, it is generally not used in ingredients, but skimmed milk powder or vegetable protein
2. Salt: almost all household margarine is added with salt, and most of the margarine used for processing cakes is not added with salt. In addition to adding salt to increase flavor, it also has anti-corrosion effect. Generally speaking, soft margarine can be added less, while hard margarine can be added more salt. In order to make the salt taste mellow, a small amount of amino acids such as glutamic acid can be added
3. Emulsifier: in order to form emulsification and prevent oil-water separation, a certain amount of emulsifier must be used in the manufacture of margarine. The commonly used emulsifiers are lecithin, glycerol monostearate and sucrose monostearate. Sucrose sugar monofatty acid esters are commonly used in the preparation of oil in water margarine. Generally, it is not common to use one emulsifier alone, but more than two emulsifiers are used together. In order to make an ideal emulsion, sometimes performance tests are needed to select the type and dosage of emulsifier and the combination of several emulsifiers. The use of emulsifiers can not only produce stable emulsions, but also have the effect of aging in food. Lecithin can prevent oil splashing during cooking. The dosage of lecithin is 0.3-0.5%, and that of glycerol monostearate is 0.1-0.5%
4. Preservatives: in order to prevent the propagation of microorganisms, some preservatives should be added to margarine. Salt is both a seasoning and a preservative. If you add about 3% salt to margarine, when the moisture in margarine is about 17%, you can prevent microbial reproduction. However, the salt in margarine generally can not reach the above dosage, and some are even less than salt. At this time, you need to add some other preservatives. According to the “food hygiene law”, Japan allows the addition of less than 0.05% dehydroacetic acid (DHA). Benzoic acid or sodium benzoate is allowed in China, and the dosage is about 0.1%. In addition, citric acid can reduce the pH value in whey and reduce the chance of mold reproduction
5. Antioxidant: in order to prevent the rancidity and deterioration of raw oil, antioxidants such as vitamin E, BHA, TBHQ and BHT are usually added, and citric acid can also be added as a synergist. The dosage of vitamin E concentrate is 0.005-0.05%, BHA and other synthetic antioxidants are less than 0.02%, and the synergist is about 0.01%
6. Flavor agent: in order to make the flavor of margarine close to that of natural cream, a small amount of synthetic edible spices such as cream flavor and vanilla are usually added to replace or enhance the flavor of milk components
7. Colorant: generally, margarine does not need coloring. Natural cream is a little yellowish. In order to imitate natural cream, colorant sometimes needs to be added. The main colorant used is carotene. Other pigments can also be used, such as lemon yellow
in addition, in some small packages of margarine, some sugar is added to meet the requirements of sweeters. Including the measurement and blending of raw and auxiliary materials, emulsification, sterilization, quench kneading, packaging, ripening and other stages
metering and blending
the raw oil enters the metering tank after metering according to a certain proportion. Oil soluble additives (emulsifiers, coloring agents, antioxidants, flavors, oil soluble vitamins, etc.) and hard materials (extremely hardened oil, etc.) are poured into the oil phase dissolving tank (which has been put in the right amount of oil ahead of time), and water soluble additives (salt, preservatives, milk, etc.) are poured into the water dissolving tank (which has been put in the right amount of water ahead of time), heated, dissolved and stirred evenly. Br> emulsification
for processing ordinary w /O margarine, the oil in the emulsifying tank can be heated to 60 ℃, then the dissolved oil phase (oil phase additive) can be added and stirred evenly, and then the water phase (aqueous phase additive) with slightly higher temperature than the oil can be added and stirred quickly to form emulsion. The dispersion state of water in the oil has a great impact on the product. Water droplets are too small (diameter less than 1) μ M accounts for 80-85%), with heavy oil feeling and poor flavor; Water drop is too large (diameter 30-40) μ M accounts for 1%), with good flavor and easy to decay; Moderate droplet size (diameter 1-5) μ M accounts for 95%, 5-10% μ M accounts for 4%, 10-20% μ M accounts for 1%, and there are about 100 million water droplets in 1 cm of margarine), which has good flavor and is difficult for bacteria to reproduce
sterilization
the emulsion is pumped into the sterilizer by screw pump. It is first sterilized by steam heat exchange at 96 ℃, high temperature for 30 seconds, and then cooled by cooling water to return to 55-60 ℃
quench kneading
the emulsion is fed into the quencher (unit a) by the plunger pump or gear pump under a certain pressure. It is cooled rapidly by liquid ammonia or freon and crystallizes rapidly in the crystallizer. The crystals frozen out on the inner wall of the cylinder are scraped off by a fast rotating scraper. At this time, the temperature of the feed liquid has fallen below the melting point of the oil to form supercooled liquid. The supercooled liquid containing crystal nucleus enters the kneader (unit B) and makes the crystal grow over a period of time. If the supercooled liquid is allowed to complete the crystallization in a static state, a network structure of solid fat crystallization will be formed, which has great overall hardness and no plasticity. In order to obtain a certain plastic product, the mechanical kneading of unit B must be carried out before forming the overall network structure, breaking the original network structure, recrystallizing it, reducing consistency and increasing plasticity. In unit B, the materials are stirred and kneaded violently and crystallized slowly. Due to the crystallization heat generated by crystallization (about 50kcal /kg) and the friction heat generated by stirring, the temperature of the material out of unit B has risen, making the crystal soft
packaging
margarine from the kneader should be sent to the packaging machine immediately. Some products that need to be molded are packaged after being processed by the molding machine. The packaged margarine shall be stored in a ripening chamber with a specific melting point of 8-10 ℃ for 2-3 days to complete the crystallization and form a product with stable properties

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