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How should radioactive materials be packaged?

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1. Packaging of radioisotopes

radioisotopes generally have high radioactive intensity and high packaging requirements. The whole package is divided into four layers

(1) the innermost layer is the inner container, which is used to contain radioactive materials and ensure that they do not leak. Different radioactive articles have different inner containers, such as radioisotopes, standard sources, radiation sources, neutron sources, etc., and their inner packaging is different

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1) if radioisotope preparations are liquid, glass ampoules or small glass bottles with metal seals or ground bottles are generally used; If it is solid, a small glass bottle or ground bottle with rubber stopper is usually used; If it is a gas, use a sealed ampoule bottle

2) metal is usually used as the inner container of radiation source, standard source and neutron source, and the mouth is sealed and not easy to open

(2) the second layer is the inner auxiliary packaging, which is the liner of the inner container and plays a shockproof role to avoid the collision between the inner container and the outer container. If it is a liquid substance, when the inner container breaks, it can absorb the liquid to prevent it from penetrating and flowing out. Commonly used liner materials include paper, cotton wadding, sponge, foam plastic, etc

(the third layer, i.e. the outer shielding layer and the third layer, are mainly used to protect the contents of the container. The materials of the outer containers of radioactive materials with different types of rays are also different

1) radiation α Ray and β X-ray objects are generally made of plastic or metal aluminum with a thickness of several millimeters. This kind of outer container is generally called plastic can and aluminum can, because plastic or metal aluminum can be shielded only with a thickness of several millimeters α Ray and β Ray

2) main radiation γ The articles of line are generally lead cans, iron cans or lead iron combination cans made of lead, iron or lead iron combination cans with different thickness, and their forms are shown in Figure 3-1

Figure 3-1 lead tank and lead iron combination tank

the thickness and weight of this outer packaging container are consistent with the release of radioactive materials γ The energy of radiation is related to the intensity of radiation, such as cesium 137 γ If the ray energy is small, the metal material of the outer container used by it is thin and the outer container is light. Cobalt 60 release γ The energy of ray is large, and the outer container used is thick, so the weight is also large

3) there are two kinds of outer containers for neutron sources. One is the paraffin tank containing polonium beryllium neutron source, as shown in Figure 3-2

figure 3-2 paraffin tank

neutron source tank is composed of paraffin and metal shell. Because the neutron flow is not charged, when passing through the material, it can not directly consume energy by ionization, so it has very strong penetration ability. However, neutrons collide with lighter nuclei and lose more energy, so paraffin or boron containing materials are used as the main material and metal shell

the other is a radium beryllium neutron source. Because the radium beryllium neutron source not only emits neutrons, but also radium γ Ray and α Therefore, in addition to paraffin wax cans, there is also a lead container in the container to shield γ Ray

the outer container must be strong enough that it will not break even in case of collision during transportation. The container cover must be firmly tightened, and the container will not open automatically even when it is subjected to various vibrations and overturning

(4) the fourth layer is the outer auxiliary packaging, which is used to protect the outer container from damage and prevent the pollution of personnel, storage places, handling tools or other articles. Generally, wooden cases, cartons, iron cylinders, metal boxes, etc. can be used. The outer package shall be kept stable during storage and transportation and not easy to dump. If the weight of each piece of goods is more than 5kg, it shall be equipped with a handle that is easy to carry and handle, and if the weight is more than 30kg, it shall be equipped with a ring buckle that is easy to lift and load. The packaging structure of radioactive materials is shown in Figure 3-3

Figure 3-3 packaging structure of radioactive materials

1 – inner container; 2 – Inner auxiliary packaging; 3 – outer container; 4 – outer auxiliary packaging

the surface of the outer packaging shall be kept clean and free from radioactive pollution. The surface of the outer container of radioisotopes is α The maximum allowable level of particle contamination shall not exceed 500 particles per 150 cm2 of surface per minute α Particles; The maximum allowable degree of contamination by 13 particles is not more than 5000 13 particles per 150cm2 surface per minute

2. The packaging of radioactive chemical reagents and chemical products

(1) put them into a solid large mouth iron barrel, which shall be padded, the barrel mouth shall be tight, the thickness of the iron barrel shall not be less than 0.5mm, and the net weight of the barrel shall not exceed 100kg

(2) put it into thick glass fiber bottle and plastic bottle, and the seal must be tight or sealed. It is required that even if it is placed upside down, it will not leak, and then put it into the wooden box. The wooden case shall be tight without leakage and provided with the specified barrier. The thickness of box plate shall not be less than 10mm. The box shall be padded with two layers of kraft paper, moisture-proof paper or plastic film, and the glass bottle shall be provided with paper cover and straw cover, which shall be properly filled with soft materials. In case of liquid goods, the box must also be filled with sufficient adsorption materials. When the container is broken, the liquid will not exude. The net weight of each box shall not exceed 25kg. Regardless of the size of the package, the surface of the package shall not be contaminated by radioactive substances

3. Packaging of radioactive ore and ore

(1) put it into solid wooden cases, wooden barrels or plastic barrels, lined with plastic bags or two layers of kraft paper bags. The packing and sealing shall be tight without leakage, and the outside of the box shall be bound tightly with iron wire and sheet iron. The thickness of the box plate shall not be less than 10mm, and there shall be specified strips around it. The net weight of each piece shall not exceed 50kg

(2) packed in kraft paper bags or plastic bags, covered with gunny bags, cloth bags or thick plastic bags. The opening of the bag must be sealed, and the two corners should be tied with grippers, and the net weight of each piece should not exceed 5kg. If the net weight of each piece exceeds 30kg, the bag shall be tied tightly with strong rope in a “well” shape

(3) put into glass bottles, tightly seal them, and then put them into solid wooden boxes. The net weight of each box shall not exceed 20kg

due to the low radioactive intensity and simple packaging of the above items, the packaging is easy to be damaged during transportation and storage, so we should pay more attention to their integrity during storage and transportation. The outer packaging surface of radioactive ore and ore shall not be stained with mineral powder, and it is strictly prohibited to use containers that have not been inspected and do not meet the requirements to store and transport radioactive articles

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