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How are pencils made?

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Why pinch?

in 1564, a black mineral graphite was discovered in barodale, England. Because graphite can leave traces on paper like lead, which is much darker than lead, graphite is called “black lead”. At that time, shepherds in barodale used graphite to mark the sheep. Inspired by this, people cut graphite blocks into small strips for writing and painting. Soon, King George II simply took the barodale graphite mine into the possession of the royal family and made it a royal patent. Writing it with a graphite strip will not only dirty your hands, but also break easily. In 1761, the German chemist Faber first solved this problem. He washed the graphite with water to turn it into graphite powder, then mixed it with sulfur, antimony and rosin, and then formed the mixture into strips, which is much more tenacious than pure graphite strips and is not easy to dirty his hands. This is the earliest pencil. Until the end of the 18th century, only Britain and Germany could produce this kind of pencil in the world. Therefore, after Napoleon Bonaparte launched the war against neighboring countries, Britain and Germany cut off the supply of pencils to France. Therefore, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered French chemist Conde to find graphite ore in his own land and make pencils. However, the quality of graphite ore in France was poor and its reserves were small. Conde mixed clay into graphite and barbecued it in a kiln to make a good and durable pencil lead in the world at that time. The hardness and color depth of the pencil lead produced by adding different proportion of clay into graphite are also different. This is why we see H (hard pencil), B (soft pencil) and Hb (pencil with moderate hardness) marked on the pencil today. The task of putting a wooden coat on a pencil was done by American craftsman Monroe. He first built a machine that can cut out wooden strips, then carved a slot on the wooden strip, put the pencil lead into the slot, and then align and bond the two wooden strips. The pencil lead is tightly embedded in the middle. This is the pencil we use today. The refill made of graphite or clay with pigment is used as the writing medium. It is a writing or painting tool for learning, office, engineering drawing, art, painting, various marks, etc. In ancient Greece and Rome, lead rods similar to pencils were made of lead metal. This kind of pen is mostly made into a cone. It uses lead to rub with other objects to leave traces of lead, which can be used for marking. In the 14th century, similar modern pencils appeared in Europe. Dutch painters used them to paint on paper. Italians used a mixture of lead and tin to make lead rods for painting and writing. In 1565, there were diagrams drawn with pencils in the German C. gersner’s collection, and recorded the words “for drawing and notes, people made refills with lead and other mixtures, and then attached wooden handles to draw lines…”. In the same year, Britain began to make the most primitive wooden pencil by hand with graphite as the refill. In 1662, the world’s first pencil factory, shidelou pencil factory, was built in Nuremberg, Germany. In 1761, German F. Custer founded Faber Custer pencil factory in Nuremberg. Sulfur and antimony were used as binder and heated and mixed with graphite to make lead core, which made a big step forward in pencil manufacturing technology. From 1790 to 1793, French N.J. Kant first adopted the method of washing graphite with water to improve the purity of graphite, and bonded graphite with clay to make refill. This method is called Kant method. Kant pencil factory was established in 1793, which laid the foundation for modern pencil industry. In 1932, China established the first Dahua pencil factory in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Since then, Beiping China pencil company and Shanghai Huawen pencil factory have been built successively, both of which are semi-finished product processing plants. In 1934, a Chinese standard domestic pencil factory was established in Shanghai, began to make lead cores and began to study the use of domestic raw materials to make pencils. After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, large-scale pencil factories with an annual output of 150-250 million pieces have been built in more than 10 cities such as Harbin, Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan, Dalian, Fuzhou, Shenyang and Bengbu. Lead core manufacturing and painting, printing and decoration technology have also been continuously improved, and all plastic pencils, resin fine lead cores and fine core movable pencils have been developed. We have developed new equipment such as glue plate bundle clamp dryer, automatic painting machine, electric tunnel core burning furnace, lap board machine and various packaging machines.

the plate is 184mm long, 73mm wide and 4.8 ~ 5.2mm thick. After heating (60 ~ 120 ℃) drying and high temperature (130 ~ 200 ℃) denaturation treatment, the pencil board is softened and easy to curl
lead core processing: extrude lead core with certain specification and size (such as HB ~ 3H lead core diameter of 1.80 ~ 2.10mm) through core pressing machine
a white pencil with a length of 178 ~ 180mm is made by rod planer.

pencils are not made of lead, but graphite
there are two obvious disadvantages of the early graphite seal stone: one is to stain the fingers; Second, it is easy to break. An unknown genius solved the problem of pollution. The way is to wrap it tightly with thread and rope, just like wearing a dress for graphite stone. The easy problem was solved in 1761 by Caspar Feber, a craftsman and amateur chemist in Bavaria, Germany. He stirred graphite powder with sulfur, antimony and resin and made the sticky mixture into a stick. The hardness of the formed mixture is much stronger than that of pure graphite
by mastering the proportion of mixed clay, Nicholas made his pencils from hard to soft in grade; In color, make the line drawn by the pencil from light gray to dark black
later, William Monroe, a joiner of pure American descent, invented a machine that can make about 6-7 inch standard wooden strips in his shop. Each plank is grooved by the machine from head to tail, and the groove depth is exactly the radius of the graphite cylinder. Then the graphite was glued together with two pieces of wood punched through the slot and properly tightened. This was the first modern pencil
it was cheap and easy to carry. It was soon accepted by a group of clerks, craftsmen and managers produced by the industrial revolution. Quill pen and ink had to take second place
the standard pencil produced now can scratch 35 miles long, write at least 45000 words, and cut 16 times until it is still usable two inches from the end of the pen. It also carries a rubber with a yellow metal head
modern pencils are made of 40 different raw materials, the best graphite is produced in Sri Lanka, Madagascar and Mexico; The best clay is produced in Germany; The best rubber is produced in Malaysia; The best wax is produced in Brazil; The egg sized pebbles used to stir graphite and clay in the machine are produced in Belgium and Denmark; The best aromatic wood is produced in the United States.

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