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Home Uncategorized Discussion topic: the difference in style between the “frontier novel” represented by Shen Congwen and the “urban novel” (new feeling novel) represented by Shi Zhecun.

Discussion topic: the difference in style between the “frontier novel” represented by Shen Congwen and the “urban novel” (new feeling novel) represented by Shi Zhecun.

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I) aesthetic reflection on the secular life of drinking and eating

the unity of heaven and man in Chinese culture, The blending of subject and object actually determines the origin of cultural subjectivity in Beijing style texts to a great extent. Xiangxi is described as a calm and simple world, “everything is dominated by one habit”, but it is full of harmony between people. “These people not only value justice over profit, but also keep their promises. Even prostitutes are often more trustworthy than gentlemen in moral and shameful cities.” (1) Shen Congwen describes honesty in lowliness and enthusiasm in innocence. People respect certain social etiquette and established customs in a simple and simple human relationship, and form simple and sincere characters, which are presented through the secular life of drinking and eating in Western Hunan. Shen Congwen’s characters in the Western Hunan world have a leisurely way of life, enjoy secular life and daily life in an extremely natural state, and thus show a secularized aesthetic tendency in the text

in the novel text from the perspective of Shen Congwen’s border town, human beauty is now a drink and a meal in the Western Hunan world. From the exploration of the meaning of daily life and life details, it reflects the narrator’s feelings of entering the world for real survival and a feeling of seeking transcendence and eternity in secular survival. “On board” is a recollection of chenshui’s life on board and on shore. With the experience and practice of eating and customs on board, we recall our hometown and relatives in our hometown. In “company commander”, diet and entertainment are still the focus of military life without war. In “after enlistment”, the narrator makes it clear that, not to eat and drink, who wants to leave the interesting hometown? (2) at the beginning, it was mentioned that the troops had been eating and drinking in the stockade for four or five days. The initial military life was not a boring stand at attention and relax, but the so-called all interesting things. In the wild life like a pony, after half a year, I learned to swim, sing folk songs and drive pheasants up the mountain. These entertainment have become the center of life. The interest of the night work of the inmates lies in the rich night meal, the tempting smell of roast chicken, stewed meat, wine and oil fried rice, which still exudes the flavor of youth in the reminiscent narration. It was in this interesting life that a good relationship was established between the guards and the second brother of the prisoner. This is reflected in the fact that every night’s snack always leaves a copy for him, while the second brother returns by telling about hunting wild boars in the countryside and shooting Tigers with arrows. When all this ended with the second brother’s murder, the interesting life of drinking and eating disappeared. In “San San San”, the narration revolves around the daily life of San San’s mother and daughter. San San, who eats rice with vegetables, small fish and eggs, changes several times of new clothes, spends several festivals and watches several times of lion dragon lanterns, grows up. This kind of day, however, gives birth to a kind of secular silence and serenity due to the tenacity and monotony of the three mothers and daughters in peace. Similarly, in border town, Grandpa guarding the ferry and Cuicui guarding grandpa are equally content with a peaceful and monotonous life. On the Dragon Boat Festival, the encounter between the dragon boat and Nuo delivery, the rejection of Tianbao and the vague understanding of folk songs, including Cuicui’s life experience, Tianbao and the disappearance of Nuo delivery, all exist as an accident. What really exists in Cuicui’s and grandpa’s life is the business of ferry. When there is no transition in the sunny weather, sit on the big rock in front of the door to bask in the sun and watch the yellow dog holding wood, Finally, it is inevitable that Grandpa’s old death and Cuicui’s loneliness. In the novel text, the most aesthetic observation is that the grandparents and grandchildren are happy, take the ferry and all people and things related to the ferry seriously, and pay attention to survival and life itself in the rural life without asking for anything. At the same time, all the boats and Yang Mabing, who are connected with their grandparents and grandchildren, are serious and down-to-earth, especially in the arrangement of funeral, ferry and Cuicui after grandpa’s death. This kind of life attitude of placing oneself in real life rationally even when life is most sad is secular; At the same time, because it is a non utilitarian attitude of entering the WTO, it has obtained a certain aesthetic transcendence. Similarly, the primitive customs of Western Hunan are naturally presented in the specific process of secular life. For example, for the belief in ghosts and gods, you can call Guanyin godmother, worship the old monk godfather, and even worship idols, stones, trees, monuments, bridges, butchers’ tables and pigs in pig pens. Almost everything can be godfather and godmother. At the same time, folk entertainment and simple culture, such as social drama for the purpose of worshipping and thanking God, dragon boat racing and pilgrimage to Buddha, are the specific components of secular life and the way of real life. At the same time, they are given cultural and aesthetic attention in the narration of the narrative subject

this concern for secular life and the pursuit of aesthetic transcendence of secular life come down in one continuous line with the concept of “unity of heaven and man” in Chinese local culture. “The so-called relationship between heaven and man is the relationship between man and nature. Zhang Zai of the Song Dynasty clearly put forward the four words of the unity of heaven and man. He said that nature is also objective reality, and man is also objective reality. Both heaven and man are objective reality, and they form a whole with each other, which is called” the unity of heaven and man “. Zhang Zai expressed the thought of the unity of heaven and man in eight words: “heaven and earth are the parents of the people, and things are the same”. Heaven and earth is heaven and earth, heaven and earth are the parents of all human things, and all human things are produced by heaven and earth. People and things, people are my compatriots, and all things are my partners and friends. Zhang Zai believes that people are produced by nature and a part of nature. In nature, many animals and plants exist at the same time as me, and we should love them. ” (3) China’s thought of the unity of heaven and man emphasizes the integration of man and nature, but nature is not the object of human understanding, but is related to human nature, life activities and way of life. Therefore, this unity of heaven and man pursues a spiritual state in which nature and man are in harmony. Therefore, in Shen Congwen’s novels, nature, natural life activities and free way of life become the object of narration. In this narration, what is implied is the experience of the spiritual state of the fit between nature and man. At the same time, because the Chinese style unity of heaven and man emphasizes life rather than cognition, the internal spirit or essence of “unity” is not in people, and the foothold is life and personnel. (4) this emphasis on life and personnel is further reflected in the pursuit of transcendence in real secular life and specific survival happiness. “The ‘unity of body and function’ is another expression of the Chinese philosophical feature of ‘unity of heaven and man’. Heaven is not big but man is not small, ‘body’ is not higher than ‘use’, ‘Tao’ is in ‘ethical daily life’, ‘industrial and commercial farming’, and ‘body’ and ‘Tao’ are ‘ethical daily use’, ‘industrial and commercial farming’ itself. We pursue transcendence, transcendence, infinity and noumenon without leaving the interpersonal relationship and experience life of ethical daily use. Noumenon, Tao, infinity and transcendence are The current phenomenon is in life and interpersonal relationships. ” (5) Shen Congwen explored the transcendence of survival itself in the daily use of drinking and eating in the Western Hunan world. This aesthetic itself has become the infinity, noumenon and some eternity similar to faith pursued by the text. Here, if Shen Congwen’s affirmation of secular life and the description of secular drinking and eating in the Western Hunan world are taken away, the human beauty of the Western Hunan world cannot be reflected. It is in this narrative of human beauty under the aesthetic observation of secular life that the imagination space of novel texts such as border town and the various implied meanings brought by this imagination space can be produced

(II) the pursuit of spiritual harmony in real secular life

Chinese aesthetics can occur in human relations daily use and daily ethics, and seek a kind of moderation and harmony of human relations. The Chinese style harmony between heaven and man includes the Confucian “harmony between man and nature” and the Taoist “harmony between man and nature”. At the same time, on the basis of human relations, it also stresses personal dignity. This is a characteristic of Confucianism and Taoism. Confucius believed that “if there is a handsome subject, Confucius can not win the dignity of the people”. Mencius said that human life is very important, but there is more important than life, that is, human dignity. Therefore, Confucianism has a tradition that “scholars can be killed and not humiliated”. Mencius proposed that everyone has his internal value, which can never be deprived. The content of internal value is moral consciousness. Taoism emphasizes individual freedom more. After denying the reality of non freedom, Taoism uses “Xinzhai” and “sitting and forgetting” to eliminate things and me, live and die together, pursue interests and one life, so as to achieve the “unity of man and heaven” of Taoism. For “harmony”, it is actually “harmony” — the pursuit of harmony is the common pursuit of Confucianism and Taoism. In Shen Congwen’s text of Xiangxi world, he still pursues a kind of harmony of human relations, but this harmony of human relations has been given new value on the basis of tradition. In fact, the harmony of human relations in the world of Western Hunan presents a very strange phenomenon, that is, in the attention to the secular life of one drink and one food, the Confucian law of human relations inherent in the secular life has been removed. The traditional Chinese ideal of life is five Lun harmony, emphasizing human relations, emphasizing that everyone lives in the relationship of human relations and abides by the standards of father and son, monarch and minister, couple, brother and friend, Of course, such human relations are unequal. However, in the novel text and the narration of one drink and one food after China’s entry into the WTO, each individual living in the world of Western Hunan is free and independent, and can maintain his personal survival or lifestyle in a natural state. For example, the fifth uncle in night fishing, the fourth uncle in the past, Huiming in Huiming, the cousin in cousin, ahan in watchman ahan, and the old boatman in border town. Not to mention the strong sailors, soldiers and officers, as well as the young prostitutes hanging on the stairs. Even sansanhe Cuicui, who appeared as the weak and the most naive, grew his personality and nature in a state of complete freedom. At the same time, he had considerable autonomy and decision-making power in the survival of drinking and eating. In this world, there is no ethical norm of Confucian patriarchal society and inequality under this norm. It is this individual free state and the satisfaction and experience of this free state that constitute a certain ethical harmony between man and man, man and nature and man and society in the world of Western Hunan. It seems that only an unknown destiny can change this harmony. If we say that this natural state is the ideal pursued by Taoism, how can Taoism’s decisive denial of reality explain the satisfaction of the characters in the Western Hunan world for the current situation and their feelings for survival itself? If this phenomenon is completely attributed to the specific endowment and simple customs of the border ethnic minorities, it can not explain that the ethics provided in the novel text seems to be the pursuit of Han culture

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